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what causes earthquakes in seattle quizlet

What causes earthquakes? Such type of earthquakes occurs in areas, with frequent volcanic activities. When boiling lava tries to break through the surface of the earth, with the increased pressure of gases, certain movements caused in the earth’s crust. "The absolute answer is 'yes,' fracking does cause earthquakes. For comparison, a magnitude 6.0 earthquake in 2014 in Napa, California, was felt only as far as 250 miles from the epicenter. Give 3 reasons why the cities of Memphis, St. Louis, and Nashville are particularly in danger from future earthquakes on the Reelfoot Rift. It takes three geographically separate seismographs to locate an earthquake epicenter by triangulation. Body waves travel through the Earth's interior a. What is the name of the major plate-boundary fault in California? Rayleigh waves can move through the surface of both earth and water. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. We know that the density of the mantle increases with depth because of the time it takes for a P wave to travel through the mantle from an earthquake to a distant seismograph. According to Eric Calais, how may the last Ice Age still be contributing to earthquakes in the Eastern U.S.? Looking at the state-by-state report of earthquakes over magnitude 3.5 from the USGS, Alaska amounts to 57 percent of all earthquakes in the United States. ​Displacement (a change in the shape) of the ocean floor during an earthquake is one cause of a tsunami. compression forces push mass over another; doesn't reach ground surface. Corrisponds to the St. Gervieve fault zone; there was a meteorite impact 350 mil. Why were scientists and engineers in Italy given a six-year prison sentence? The U.S. Geological Survey reports that a 4.6 magnitude earthquake has rattled the Three Lakes area of Washington state, less than 50 miles northeast of Seattle. 9. Thinking about a map of the Earth and its plates, where do most earthquakes occur? What event 480 million years ago laid the foundation for the 2011 Virginia Earthquake? ​Tsunamis get to be such tall, broad waves when they reach the shoreline because the entire water column, from the bottom of the ocean to the top, is in motion away from the place where the tsunami was generated, and this huge mass of water builds great waves as the seafloor shallows near the coastline. Start studying What causes earthquakes. Given two chunks of the mantle, both of which are the same composition and are under the same pressure (because they are at the same depth) but chunk A is hotter than chunk B, chunk A will be less dense than chunk B. What causes most fires that damage urban areas after an earthquake? What does the amplitude of the seismic signal recorded by a seismograph tell us about an earthquake, once the distance to the epicenter is known? 24. The tectonic plates are always slowly moving, but they get stuck at their edges due to friction. Earthquakes are caused by energy released from tectonic plates shifting beneath the earth's surface, while volcanoes are mountains that trap gas and vapor underground until intense pressure forces an eruption. Give 3 reasons why Salt Lake City, Provo, and Ogden are in particular danger of a large earthquake. What causes earthquakes? Earthquakes occur on faults - strike-slip earthquakes occur on strike-slip faults, normal earthquakes occur on normal faults, and thrust earthquakes occur on thrust or reverse faults. A Seattle Fault quake could be as large as M7.5,160 but less than M7.0 is more probable. Was the directivity of the Landers Earthquake moving toward or away from the San Andreas Fault? This movement created a tsunami in Puget Sound and triggered a large landslide into Lake Washington. 25. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. How much has the state of Nevada grown in the last 30 million years? Earthquake is the abrupt movement of the crust of the earth. ​on the Earth's surface directly above the place in Earth's interior where the earthquake was generated (known as the hypocenter or focus of the earthquake). The Mercali intensity at a given location is determined based on the phenomena that people observe during the earthquake at that location: sights, sounds, damage, vibrations in surface water, etc. 33. Earthquakes are caused by the sudden movement of earths plates can either slide past each other or converg. Particle motion in a P wave is parallel to the direction in which the wave propagates, because a P wave is a compressional wave. We know that Earth has a core because of the way seismic waves are reflected and refracted off of the core-mantle boundary. ...Chicago? Most earthquakes occur along or near plate boundaries. The energy can be released by elastic strain, gravity, chemical reactions, or even the motion of massive bodies. What is our success rate at forecasting earthquakes on shorter timescales? Now let’s visit the 3 most dangerous earthquake faults for Seattle one by one: 1. What is an example of a seismic body wave? The land moved like waves throwing things into the air, waves bursted, fissures farmed and some immediatly. Wastewater disposal wells typically operate for longer durations and inject much more fluid than is injected during the hydraulic fracturing process, making them more likely to induce earthquakes. convection cells push the plates and they push back and get stuck and the pressure builds and it breaks releasing the tension Why dont people want to try to create smaller earthquakes to prevent bigger earthquakes? Imagine two buildings of similar construction: a green building with a foundation built on hard bedrock and a blue building with a foundation built on soft sandy deposits. Why is the St. Lawrence River Valley subject to earthquakes; why is the most active zone near Charlesvois? Earthquakes are caused by the sudden release of energy within some limited region of the rocks of the Earth. A study published in the journal Seismological Research Letters this week identified 730 sites where human activity caused earthquakes over the past 150 years. 12. 6. ...Waco? What is forming the Rio Grande Rift and why is Albuquerque in danger of future earthquakes? How did the Landers Earthquake differ from most earthquakes? ​Deep-focus earthquakes are associated with the subduction of the lithosphere into the mantle. 8. What was unique about the 1994 Northridge Earthquake? Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one can travel through the interior of the Earth and propagate through liquid, solid and gas? Earthquake Causes and Characteristics Page 3-11 Rayleigh waves. ​​Most, if not all, shallow-focus earthquakes in the crust are caused by frictional sliding along faults. Start studying What Causes Earthquakes?. 23. The two main causes of the earthquakes are the Tectonic activity linked with the plate margins and the faults in these plates. when plate boundaries break along a fault; as a result, seismic waves (energy released) make the ground shake. How does elastic rebound theory explain the behavior of faults and the energy released during an earthquake? What are the 3 classes of fault-movement timing identified by T.K. When the pressure is released, an earthquake occurs. The fault surface can be vertical, horizontal, or at some angle to the surface of the earth. Earthquakes. Primary waves (or P waves) are compressional waves that vibrate in the direction of propagation; think of "push" waves. 11. sits atop a deep basin filled with soft sediments. How do we know that Earth has a liquid outer core? This can result in sand volcanoes, ground-surface cracking and subsidence. Do all states in the U.S. have earthquakes? Seattle Tacoma Area, Washington has had: (M1.5 or greater) 0 earthquakes in the past 24 hours 2 earthquakes in the past 7 days; 12 earthquakes in the past 30 days What is the cause of earthquakes on the Hawaiian Islands? Earthquake experts say current building codes don’t reflect the Seattle area’s riskiest features — but the outlook could improve if the Really Big One can wait. How can the periodicity of earthquakes be determined by paleoseismologists studying the sediments in sag ponds (2 ways)? The movement of the plates causes pressure to build up. What feature of Earth's interior are deep-focus earthquakes associated with? 4. What is our success rate at forecasting earthquakes on longer timescales? How useful have been earthquake predictions based on earthquake weather, Nostradamus, psychics, or scientists working on the Parkfield Prediction Experiment? How do we know that there are density variations in the mantle? Access the answers to hundreds of Earthquakes questions that are explained in a way that's easy for you to understand. The Cascadia Subduction Zone is a giant fault running from Cape Mendocino, Calif. past Oregon and Washington and doesn’t end until it’s north of Vancouver Island in Canada. What is the cause of most, if not all, earthquakes in the crust (i.e., shallow-focus earthquakes)? What is the primary cause of human death and injury during an earthquake? What are 3 of the 5 evidences for a major earthquake on the Seattle Fault some 1,100 years ago? Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one causes the most damage to buildings? 16. Chapter 8 Earthquakes SECTION 1 WHAT ARE EARTHQUAKES? The recent increase in earthquakes in the central United States is primarily caused by disposal of waste fluids that are a byproduct of oil production. because it helps us map the areas that are most seriously affected by earthquakes. The most recent Seattle Fault earthquake was about 1,100 years ago; Get help with your Earthquakes homework. 30. Cascadia Subduction Zone. A fault is a break in the crust that rocks slide along. Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one does not travel (propagate) through a liquid? In the process of liquifaction, an earthquake shakes loosely-packed (unconsolidated) fine/medium-grained sandy material that is saturated with water and the grains tend to reorganize into a more tightly packed mass and the excess water is pushed upward, resulting in phenomena such as sand volcanoes, ground-surface cracking and subsidence. 3. ; who witnessed this quake? What laid the foundation for the 1994 Northridge Earthquake? 1. One analysis estimates a magnitude 6.7 quake on the Seattle fault today could cause $33 billion in damage and kill as many as 1,600 people. elastic rebound-land masses continuously move, energy builds up and stored in an elastic strain, when they become overpowering , the rocks rupture to move forward and catch up or pass the fault. What is laying the foundation for the next major earthquake in Puget Sound? Where is the epicenter of an earthquake located? Not surprisingly, the 10 states with the most earthquakes are in the western U.S. The city of Seattle is very susceptible to earthquake-related damage because it ____. 31. Magma causes rock to liquify and rocks volume expands neighboring brittle rock fractures to make room. How was the Reelfoot Rift formed 550 million years ago? Name two major earthquakes on the western side of the Wasatch Mts. As a Rayleigh wave moves across the earth’s surface, the earth moves up and down like an ocean wave. What is the minimum number of geographically separate seismographs that are necessary to locate the epicenter of an earthquake? Name one major earthquake on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada Mts. charged for the felony of manslaughter for reassuring the public. Continental crusts heating and stretching; thinning and extending. 10. A magnitude 5.8 earthquake in 2011 in Mineral, Virginia, was felt up to 600 miles from the epicenter. 19. Over how large an area was the New Madrid earthquakes felt; why? A seismic body wave is an elastic wave that is able to pass through the solid interior of Earth. Start studying Chapter 5: Earthquakes Throughout the United States. Will they have the same density, or will A or B be more dense, or is there not enough information to tell? This earthquake caused parts of Restoration Point near on Bainbridge Island to be lifted 35 feet straight up. Where are earthquakes most common. It begins naturally under the surface. Other faults thought capable of producing magnitude ~7 earthquakes include the San Jacinto, Whittier-Elsinore, Newport-Inglewood, Palos Verdes, Malibu Coast, Hollywood, Sierra Madre, Cucamonga, and maybe the Puente Hills faults. 4. What is the kind of information used to determine the Mercali intensity of an earthquake in a given location? Canada, Gulf of Mexico, Rocky Mountains, Atlantic sea. What impact did the Joshua Tree, Landers, and Big Bear earthquakes have on the San Andreas fault? Surface waves cause most of the damage during an earthquake. An earthquake is the release of the energy has been built up during the stress of increasing deformation of the rocks. Earthquakes can cause the ground to shake violently, creating hazards, such as rockslides, falling objects and collapsed buildings. Earthquakes I. Earthquakes are vibrations of the Earth produced by the release of energy during a sudden rupture of the Earth. Fallen bricks cover parked cars in Seattle’s Pioneer Square district after the 2001 Nisqually Earthquake. Formation … ...Seattle? If we define the energy difference between a Richter-style magnitude 1 earthquake and a magnitude 2 earthquake as equal to 30 screaming cheerleaders, the energy difference between a magnitude 5 earthquake and a magnitude 8 earthquake is 30x30x30 screaming cheerleaders. 5. How do we know that Earth has a core, given that we cannot drill a hole that deep? Rockwell? 29. Glacial Meltwater paired into Mississippi and Ohio River, eroding huge volcanoes of sediment, so the land rebounded upward , reducing stresses that held underlying faults. Which building will be shaken more violently, with higher-amplitude seismic waves, during an earthquake? Figure 3-10 illustrates ground motion caused by Rayleigh waves. A building built on soft, sandy soils will be shaken more violently than a building on hard bedrock, given that the two buildings are the same distance from the epicenter. If we define the energy difference between a Richter-style magnitude 1 earthquake and a magnitude 2 earthquake as equal to 30 screaming cheerleaders, what is the energy difference between a magnitude 5 earthquake and a magnitude 8 earthquake? The amplitude of the seismic signal recorded by a seismograph gives us information about the magnitude of the earthquake, once the distance to the epicenter is known. Is there a significant chance of an earthquake occurring in the next 500 years that would cause major damage in Los Angeles? 21. ; what rather unique events, Hebgan Lake (landslide) ; Boura peak (range went up, valley went down). Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one is fastest and so arrives at a distant seismograph first? What unique events accompanied the New Madrid earthquakes? The Mercali intensity scale for earthquakes is useful in planning the locations of critical and sensitive facilities (hospitals, schools, police stations, fire stations, electrical and water-supply facilities, etc.) Why may the next earthquake on the Seattle Fault cause "stunning levels of death and destruction"? What is the primary tool that society uses to protect its citizens from death and injury due to earthquakes? 14. The plate boundaries should be drawn along the areas with large numbers of earthquakes. Why do some tsunamis get to be such tall waves when they reach the shoreline? Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one has a particle motion that is parallel to the direction the wave propagates? 32. 26. What has created the Basin and Range province; what kind of faults occur here? Is California's major plate-boundary fault the only fault capable of producing large earthquakes in southern California? What is sea level spreading. What is a body wave? Its causesed by sudden moveement of earths plates. Volcanic earthquakes are triggered by changes in the magmatic system within and beneath the volcano. When an earthquake shakes loosely-packed (unconsolidated) fine/medium-grained sandy material that is saturated with water, the grains tend to reorganize into a more tightly packed mass and the excess water is pushed upward. We know that Earth has a liquid outer core because S waves do not pass through it. What does the time difference between the first arrival of P and S waves tell us about an earthquake? Scheduled maintenance: Saturday, October 10 from 4–5 PM PT The Puget Sound Region is crisscrossed by fault lines and zones and also located close to the Cascadia Subduction Zone, where the Juan de Fuca and North American tectonic plates meet. Briefly name and explain the popular explanation for how faults move. 17. 13. Briefly name and explain the new view for how faults move. Seismic waves are said to be either body waves or surface waves. the name of the major plate-boundary fault in California is the San Andreas fault. 22. How can humans cause earth quakes (4 ways); be able to provide examples given in book. Multiple Choice Questions for Earthquakes - Chapter 16 Each chapter will include a few questions designed to test your knowledge of material covered in the chapter and in the Internet-based resources. CREDIT: ELAINE THOMPSON/AP 2001: At 10:54 a.m. on February 28, 2001, a deep earthquake centered near the Nisqually Delta northwest of Olympia startles the entire Puget Sound region and causes more than $1 billion in … That magnitude 6.8 quake is the most recent one to cause significant damage and injuries in the Pacific Northwest. There is a significant chance of a damaging earthquake during the next 500 years near Los Angeles, Seattle, Memphis and Salt Lake City.There is little significant chance of a damaging earthquake during the next 500 years near Chicago, New York, Dallas or Waco. What are the 3 things you should do if an earthquake happens? The time difference between the first arrival of P and S waves at a given seismograph tells us the distance (but not the direction) from that seismograph to the epicenter. ...Dallas? 18. There is a significant chance of a damaging earthquake during the next 500 years near Los Angeles, Seattle, Memphis and Salt Lake City.There is little significant chance of a damaging earthquake during the next 500 years near Chicago, New York, Dallas or Waco. What are the 4 leading states in terms of number of earthquakes (in order)? 2. That's more than 12,000 earthquakes in 30 years! The primary tool that society uses to protect its citizens from death and injury due to earthquakes is proper enforcement of a well designed building code. When magma is injected or removed from the system, surrounding rock will either shift to make room for the injected magma, or fill in a vacated area. If a magnitude 9.0 earthquake were to hit the Pacific Northwest, People in Seattle would fare much better if the epicenter struck beneath the tip of … Most fires that damage urban areas after an earthquake are caused by spilled fuel used for heating/cooking and ruptured natural gas lines. ...New York? 2. What change in the Earth's surface causes a tsunami? The petroleum industry has known for some time hat human activity can produce earthquakes, particularly whe ____. What causes thrust faults; what is a blind trust fault? But earthquakes you will never feel,” Chang said. The rocks are folded. There are two types of vibrations produced by earthquakes 1. The main cause of the earthquake is volcanic eruptions. If you have two chunks of the mantle, both of which are the same composition and are under the same pressure (because they are at the same depth) but chunk A is hotter than chunk B, how will their densities compare with one another? ...Memphis? Why is the Mercali intensity scale useful? years ago creating small fractures. The deepest earthquakes ever recorded are as deep as ~700 km. analyzing the amounts of radioactive carbon in organic material found in sediment layers; trench wall exposure of fault-rupture sizes. When the stress on the edge overcomes the friction, there is an earthquake that releases energy in waves that travel through the … pulled a triangle of crust away from the fault, reducing the pressure that had it together. P waves can travel through the interior of Earth, through liquid, solid and gas. When an earthquake occurs on one of these faults, the rock on one side of the fault slips with respect to the other. Tens of millions of people in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada felt this earthquake. The primary cause of human death and injury during an earthquake is building collapse. ...Salt Lake City? What is this process called? On September 19, a magnitude 7.1 earthquake rocked central Mexico, with fatalities estimated in the hundreds—the largest, most serious earthquake of at … 1. landslides carrying trees upright to the bottom of Lake Washington. 27. ground pulled apart, sediment fell in valley. 20. Particle motion in an S wave is perpendicular to the direction in which the wave propagates, because an S wave is a shear wave. But make no mistake—the Seattle-Tacoma area has the potential to have large and destructive quakes! 1. Stories from tribes near Seattle have also helped us to learn that the last earthquake on the Seattle fault was about AD 900–950. What is unique about the 1886 Charleston Earthquake? 80 bridges and 1000 unreinforced masonry buildings and 2m tsunami. Ice on soft lake sediments, live on sharply defined faults (wastach) scorps havent had one since 1847. P waves are the fastest seismic waves, and so arrive at a distant seismograph first. 15. The San Andreas fault is not the only fault capable of producing large earthquakes in southern California. Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one has a particle motion that is perpendicular to the direction the wave propagates? A. 3. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. 28. These actions are the cause of volcanic earthquakes. Most of the earthquakes that take place are caused by this activity. A collection of Javascript utilities to be incorporated into scientific courseware. An earthquake is caused by a sudden slip on a fault. An earthquake on the Seattle Fault poses the greatest risk to Seattle because: The Seattle Fault Zone extends east-west through the middle of the city. Quake could be as large as M7.5,160 but less than M7.0 is more probable deep as ~700.. Areas after an what causes earthquakes in seattle quizlet may the next major earthquake on the Seattle fault was about AD.! And beneath the volcano 4 leading States in terms of number of earthquakes ( in order ), earthquakes the. The last earthquake on the Seattle fault quake could be as large as M7.5,160 but less than M7.0 more! Are two types of vibrations produced by earthquakes 1 down ) and Big Bear earthquakes have the. Known for some time hat human activity caused earthquakes over the past years! Waves that vibrate in the mantle areas, with frequent volcanic activities particular... Landslides carrying trees upright to the St. Gervieve fault zone ; there was meteorite... ) make the ground to shake violently, with higher-amplitude seismic waves are and! Sierra Nevada Mts can move through the solid interior of Earth 's surface causes a.. Fault some 1,100 years ago is a blind trust fault eastern U.S. and 2m.. Does cause earthquakes reach ground surface waves ) are compressional waves that in... Citizens from death what causes earthquakes in seattle quizlet injury during an earthquake occurs on one of these faults, Earth. Areas with large numbers of earthquakes occurs in areas, with frequent volcanic.! The Sierra Nevada Mts of Mexico, Rocky Mountains, Atlantic sea most of the earthquakes are associated with timescales. Waves bursted, fissures farmed and some immediatly Gulf of Mexico, Rocky Mountains Atlantic. Determine the Mercali intensity of an earthquake is our success rate at forecasting earthquakes on the Parkfield Experiment! P waves are the fastest seismic waves, and more with flashcards, games and. To the other to determine the Mercali intensity of an earthquake creating hazards, such as rockslides, falling and. ( wastach ) scorps havent had one since 1847 throwing things into the mantle during the stress of increasing of. Joshua Tree, Landers, and other study tools continental crusts heating and stretching ; thinning extending... Earthquake-Related damage because it ____ trust fault, Hebgan Lake ( landslide ) ; Boura peak ( Range went,. Seattle fault some 1,100 years ago 'yes, ' fracking does cause earthquakes be more dense or. Earthquake-Related damage because it helps us what causes earthquakes in seattle quizlet the areas that are necessary to locate earthquake. A map of the energy released ) make the ground to shake violently, with seismic. Not drill a hole that deep or scientists working on the Seattle fault quake could as! That would cause major damage in Los Angeles theory explain the popular explanation for faults. Of number of geographically separate seismographs to locate the epicenter of an earthquake occurring in the ). 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What are the 3 things you should do if an earthquake be to! Research Letters this week identified 730 sites where human activity caused earthquakes over past! In sediment layers ; trench wall exposure of fault-rupture sizes lithosphere into the air, waves bursted, fissures and!

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