Some other definitions include: 1. Following the Second World War—and in particular the Holocaust—psychologists set out to investigate the phenomenon of human obedience. We have choices but do not know which to select. As Schneider, Gruman, and Coutts (2012) note, the fundamental attribution error involves people attributing another’s behavior or attitudes to their personal demeanor, rather than taking situational factors into account. of their own group to obtain and accept accurate information about reality. There is a crisis. Social psychologists view compliance as a means of social influence used to reach goals or attain social or personal gains. This is a perfect example of informational influence, where information from others provides a person more information about a social situation (Schneider et al., 2012). Pennsylvania State University. Research has identified a few common requirements that contribute to recognition of a group: interdependence, social interaction, perception as a group, commonality of purpose, and favoritism. While high levels of conformity can be detrimental, a certain amount of conformity is necessary and normal, and even essential for a community to function. If contestants attributed behaviors appropriately, it is possible that alliances could be different and the entire game could proceed in an entirely new way. After running these experiments, Milgram and Zimbardo concluded that the following factors affect obedience: The Milgram and Zimbardo experiments stand as dramatic demonstrations of the power of authority and other situational factors in human behavior. In psychology, conformity is defined as the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms. The Stanford prison experiment was a study, conducted by Philip Zimbardo at Stanford University in 1971, of the psychological effects of becoming a prisoner or prison guard and. For example, Timmy asks his mom for permission to go over to John’s house for an hour. The journal of abnormal and social psychology, 51(3), 629. Example Answers for Social Influence: A Level Psychology, Paper 1, June 2019 (AQA) Exam technique advice. The extreme ideas seem less risky as it appears the view is held by numerous like-minded people. The participants were instructed that they had to shock a person in another room for every wrong answer on a learning task, and the shocks increased with intensity for each wrong answer. Organizational Life AND Teams. Informational social influence would explain why children typically copy the behavior of their parents and teachers as children believe that adults have a better sense of right and wrong. Early attempts to explain the Holocaust had focused on the idea that there was something distinctive about German culture that had allowed the Holocaust to take place. Groupthink: This image outlines the requirements, symptoms, and defects of groupthink in detail. Listed below are some major types of social influence that are being researched in the field of social psychology. Normative social influence is a type of conformity and provides one explanation for why people go along with group actions. Several factors are associated with increased conformity, including larger group size, unanimity, high group cohesion, and perceived higher status of the group. Most participants paused and questioned the experiment at some point, but 26 out of 40 still administered the full shock, even after the confederate ceased to respond. The larger the group, the higher the incidence of deindividuation, which is characterized by an individual relinquishing self-consciousness and control and doing what the group is doing. This is normative social influence -- influence resulting in the desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. Nazi Germany is often cited as a prime example of the negative potential of groupthink because a number of factors, such as shared illusions and rationalizations and a lack of individual accountability, allowed for a few powerful leaders to enlist many otherwise “normal” people in committing mass acts of violence. In Milgram’s first set of experiments, 65% of participants administered the full 450-volt shock, even though most were very uncomfortable doing so. The guards enforced authoritarian measures and ultimately subjected some of the prisoners to psychological and physical torture. Start studying Social Psychology - Informational Social Influence. Sherif suggested this was a reflection of how social norms develop in larger society. Later, we viewers often see interviews with that person, who will explain their actions or attitudes as responses to a situation. While we have learned and continued to learn from their results, they have been endlessly controversial. This form of social influence is moderated by self-confidence and task difficulty. In social psychology, “compliance” refers to an individual’s acquiescence in response to a request from a peer. Largely as a result of these experiments, ethical standards have been modified to protect participants. For example, before Anna goes to ask for time off from her manager, Anthony, she does a little research and discovers that he enjoys golfing. People exhibit conformity when they change attitudes or behaviors to reflect a perceived norm. For instance, Jane asks her parents to pay for her vacation to Australia. The Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures (1963) was a series of social psychology experiments conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram. Social proof is considered prominent in ambiguous social situations where people are unable to determine the … The subject is more likely to comply with this change in cost since he or she feels like an agreement has already occurred. Normative Social Influence. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The theory behind this shift is that the group dynamic allows the individual members to feel that their position is correct or supported, and they will feel more comfortable taking on more extreme views, as other members of the group support their initial ideas. Information social influence occurs when people conform to peer views in an attempt to reach the correct answer for themselves; it is the desire to be correct. Kelman, H. C. (1958). Informational influence and descriptive norms Social psychology is primarily concerned with learning how others influence our thinking, emotions, and actions in the field of psychological research. This technique is frequently employed by car salesmen. Group strength, group size, immediacy, and similarity are all factors that can influence compliance in an individual. Thus, social psychology studies individuals in a social context and how situational variables interact to influence behavior. There are two major motivators to conformity: normative influence and informational influence. Some people posit that this happens because individuals experience a sense of anonymity in a group. We believe that choosing the jacket was the right thing to do and that the crowd will lead us to the baggage carousel. Obedience is generally distinguished from compliance (behavior influenced by peers) and conformity (behavior intended to match that of the majority). An example of normative social influence is peer pressure. I thought I enjoyed watching it before, but after having a more complete understanding of social psychology, it makes watching it even more interesting! Low-balling gains compliance by offering the subject something at a low initial cost. On the first day, each person perceived different amounts of movement, as they participated in the experiment individually. We base our beliefs on those presented to us by reporters, scientists, doctors, and lawyers because we believe they have more expertise in certain fields than we have. Explain how certain motivators and factors may influence conformity. There is currently no universal description of what constitutes a group, though research has identified a few common requirements that contribute to recognition of a group: Individual behavior and decision making can be influenced by the presence of others. In psychology, conformity is defined as the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms. As viewers, we never get to see teams work seamlessly together, but we do get to see the repeated formation and conflicts that come with the initial stages of team development. Informational influence is likely to be stronger when a person is uncertain about the correct interpretation of reality and/or the correct behavior in a given context and therefore looks to other group members for guidance. Sometimes people behave in ways just to gain approval from others, even if they don't necessarily believe in what they are doing. A person publicly changes their behavior to fit in with the group, while also agreeing with them privately. It is informally defined as the tendency to act or think like members of a group. Conformity can be motivated either by a desire for accuracy, called informational influence, or a need for social approval, called normative influence. There are two major motivators to conformity: normative influence and informational influence. Often, a majority of a group will decide to work against a certain individual and, even if others disagree, they do not want to go against this majority group and make themselves a future enemy. There are both positive and negative implications of group influence on individual behavior. Twenty-four males students were selected to take on randomly assigned roles of prisoner or guard in a mock prison situated in the basement of the Stanford psychology building. New products or fashions are introduced by innovators, who tend to be creative and nonconforming. Psychologists have proposed a variety of definitions to encompass the social influence that conformity exerts. 1 a). Informational social influence leads to real, long-lasting changes in beliefs. If participants questioned the procedure, the researcher would encourage them further. His initial experiment in 1951 was set up as follows. This technique begins with an initial large request that the subject is not expected to comply with. Compliance is considered a social phenomenon, meaning that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people often plays a role in someone’s decision whether or not to comply with a given request. Ingratiation can include flattery, opinion conformity, and self-presentation (presenting one’s own attributes in a manner that appeals to the target). It has been further defined as a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action. This means the change in be… Lesson 10: Overcoming the Fundamental Attribution Error, Lesson 12: COVID and How it Ended the Stigma of Online Dating. There is always controversy over exactly how to interpret social psychology experiments. In social psychology, informational social influence is a type of conformity.When a person is in a situation where s/he is unsure of the correct way to behave, s/he will often look to others for cues concerning the correct behavior. Human behavior is extremely complex, and so there are always numerous variables to consider when interpreting such studies. The Holocaust resulted in the extermination of millions of Jews, Gypsies, and communists; it has prompted us to take a closer look at the roots of obedience—in part, so that tragedies such as this may never happen again. The experimenter (E) convinces the subject (T) to give what he believes are painful electric shocks to another subject, who is actually an actor (L). For example, alliances are an important part of the game of Survivor, with members of groups banding together to ensure their “survival” in the game. 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